Evidences on the absence of risk of sexual transmission of HIV by persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) with undetectable plasma HIV-RNA (HIV-RNA <200 copies/ml) led to the worldwide campaign “U = U” (undetectable = untransmittable). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived accuracy of this message among PLWHA, HIV-negative people having unprotected sex (PHUS) and Infectious diseases’ (ID) physicians in Italy. A nationwide survey has been conducted using three different anonymous questionnaires (for ID physicians, PLWHA and PHUS). A total of 1121 participants filled the questionnaires: 397 PLWHA; 90 physicians; 634 PHUS. Awareness of U = U message has been reported in 74%, 92% and 47% of PLWHA, ID physicians and PHUS, respectively. The perception of accuracy of the U = U message among those aware was reported as high in 80.4%, 79.5% and 67.3% of PLWHA, ID physicians and PHUS, respectively. Physicians perceived that 11% of PLWHA have a high rate of perception of U = U, whereas among PLWHA, only 34% reported definitive positive messages from physicians. Discrepancies between awareness and perception of accuracy of the message U = U in PLWHA and physicians have been found, suggesting still low confidence in the community regarding the message itself.
HIV; Undetectable; U = U; accuracy; awareness; untransmittable.
It was reported that targeting the Toll-like receptor9 (TLR9) signaling pathway can be a promising therapeuticstrategy forinterventions in various inflammatory and infectiousdiseases. However,it was not known whether the human TLR9 isresponsive to Brucellacytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) DNAsequences and activatesthehost’s innate immune system.
The present study aimed to identify the novel humanTLR9agonists from Brucella CpG oligodeoxynucleotide(ODN) candidatesand verify their immune response regulatorymechanisms.
Molecular docking methods were used to discover potentagonists of the human TLR9. The potential molecules were furthervalidated by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay(ELISA).
The experiment results showed a strong interactionandgood compatibility between the human TLR9 and BrucellaODN-1molecule. In addition, the induction of immune response byBrucella ODN-1 is a CpG-specific response. Moreover, the effectsof Brucella ODN-1 on cytokine response are dependent on theTLR9-mediated NF-κB pathway.
These results indicated that the Brucella ODN-1 molecule canserve as a starting point to discover or designmore potent and specific TLR9 agonists that have the potential usein the treatment of Infectious diseases.
Agonist; Brucella; Cytidine-phosphateguanosine (CpG) motif; Toll-like receptor 9.