skyla: Diphtheria vaccination

International Conference on Infectious Diseases

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Diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make toxin. It can lead to difficulty breathing, heart rhythm problems, and even death. CDC recommends vaccines for infants, children, teens, and adults to prevent diphtheria.

Causes and How It Spreads:


Diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make a toxin. It is the toxin that can cause people to get very sick.

Spread to others:

Diphtheria bacteria spread from person to person, usually through respiratory droplets, like from coughing or sneezing. People can also get sick from touching infected open sores or ulcers. Those at increased risk of getting sick include:People in the same household
People with a history of frequent, close contact with the patient
People directly exposed to secretions from the suspected infection site (e.g., mouth, skin) of the patient.

Signs and Symptoms:

The bacteria most commonly infect the respiratory system, which includes parts of the body involved in breathing. When the bacteria get into and attach to the lining of the respiratory system, it can cause:

Sore throat
Mild Fever
Swollen glands in the neck

The bacteria make a toxin that kills healthy tissues in the respiratory system. Within two to three days, the dead tissue forms a thick, gray coating that can build up in the throat or nose. Medical experts call this thick, gray coating a “pseudomembrane.” It can cover tissues in the nose, tonsils, voice box, and throat, making it very hard to breathe and swallow.

If the toxin gets into the blood stream, it can cause heart, nerve, and kidney damage.


Doctors usually decide if a person has diphtheria by looking for common signs and symptoms. They can swab the back of the throat or nose and test it for the bacteria that cause diphtheria. A doctor can also take a sample from an open sore or ulcer and try and grow the bacteria. If the bacteria grow and make the diphtheria toxin, the doctor can be sure a patient has diphtheria. However, it takes time to grow the bacteria, so it is important to start treatment right away if a doctor suspects respiratory diphtheria.


Diphtheria treatment involves:Using diphtheria antitoxin to stop the bacteria toxin from damaging the body. This treatment is very important for respiratory diphtheria infections, but it is rarely used for diphtheria skin infections.
Using antibiotics to kill and get rid of the bacteria. This is important for diphtheria infections in the respiratory system and on the skin and other parts of the body (e.g., eyes, blood).

People with diphtheria are usually no longer able to infect others 48 hours after they begin taking antibiotics. However, it is important to finish taking the full course of antibiotics to make sure the bacteria are completely removed from the body. After the patient finishes the full treatment, the doctor will run tests to make sure the bacteria are not in the patient’s body anymore.


Complications from respiratory diphtheria may include:Airway blockage
Myocarditis (damage to the heart muscle)
Polyneuropathy (nerve damage)
Kidney failure

For some people, respiratory diphtheria can lead to death. Even with treatment, about 1 in 10 patients with respiratory diphtheria die. Without treatment, up to half of patients can die from the disease.


In the United States, there are four vaccines used to prevent diphtheria: DTaP, Tdap, DT, and Td. Each of these vaccines prevents diphtheria and tetanus; DTaP and Tdap also help prevent pertussis (whooping cough).

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One year since the emergence of COVID-19 virus variant Omicron


International Conference on Infectious Diseases

#Infectiousdiseases #infection #covid-19 #influenza #sars #conferences #immunology #bacteria #bacteriology #coronavirus 

One year since the emergence of COVID-19 Virus variant Omicron

It was 26 November 2021 that WHO declared that the world was facing a new variant of concern: Omicron. It would go on to change the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Emerging evidence was quickly shared by scientists from Botswana, Hong Kong and South Africa and discussed in a special meeting of WHO’s Technical Advisory Group for Virus Evolution (TAG-VE).

Experts at the meeting worried about the large number of mutations present in this variant, which differed greatly from the other variants that had been detected so far. Early data showed Omicron’s rapid spread in some provinces in South Africa and an increased risk of reinfection compared to the previously circulating variants.

Just hours later, WHO declared this new variant a variant of concern: we were dealing with something new, something different, and something that the world had to quickly prepare for.

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Latest National Flu Spike Emphasizes Infection Control for Facility Cleaning Managers


As the flu season progresses, CleanLink periodically checks in every few weeks reporting on states that are either a rising threat for illness or ones that could be looming. With infection control such an important factor to reopening facilities and keeping schools open — and learning the best practices for doing so — it’s also important to keep tabs on influenza in addition to COVID-19 concerns especially in the winter months. For states particularly afflicted by the flu, it’s a good opportunity for facility managers to reinforce the importance of hygiene.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provides updating information with their “Weekly U.S. Influenza Report”, rates states on 6-tier scale: “Very High”, “High”, “Moderate”, “Low”, “Minimal”. Analyzing the latest results from Nov. 26, it comes as little surprise that flu cases have reached significant levels in nearly every jurisdiction in the continental United States. Compared to our last reporting from Nov. 5 — when 16 jurisdictions qualified as “High” or worse — and that number has jumped to a staggering 47 out 55 total jurisdictions.

At the beginning of November, one region that was a silver-lining of sorts was the West coast, as California was the only jurisdiction at the time classifying higher than “Low”. Fast forward three weeks, and each of those same states now classify as “High” or worse. The Midwest, East Coast and Southern states, which on-average were struggling more at the time have failed to improve. In total, the jurisdictions registering lower than the “High” case rate classification are as follows: Michigan, West Virginia, Vermont, New Hampshire, Virgin Islands, and the North Mariana Islands.

The jump in case rates overall is no surprise, and is in-line with years without shutdowns and other pandemic-related factors. With Thanksgiving marking the beginning of an annual 40-day stretch with unusually high volumes of indoor gatherings, facility cleaning managers can expect the threat to loom — and for a tightening emphasis on touchpoint disinfection, handwashing, and continued encouragement for occupants to receive the flu vaccine. Click here for more best practices as it pertains to this pivotal time of the year.

Be sure to check back in to for additional flu updates as the season progresses. 

International Conference on Infectious Diseases


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